VinoCalc by Jonathan Musther - jon@slymail.org The latest version will always be available at http://www.slymail.org/vinocalc.html |
Version 2.5 16th October 2009 |
Gravity/Density/Sugar Conversions:
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Details: Conversion
between various units of density. Some conversions are not
perfect, for example specific gravity and °Brix do not measure the same
physical property, and are often measured using different instruments.
Some of these conversion are therefore based on expressions
derived from polynomial fits to experimental data sets. Potential alcohol is not a measure of density, but it is useful. This calculation is an approximation, for more detailed alcohol prediction see the alcohol prediction calculator. Dissolved Solids is not a measure of density, but is useful. This is an estimate of dissolved solids assuming that most of the solids are sucrose - it will be close to the true value. |
Temperature Conversions:
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Details: A simple conversion between °F and °C and visa versa. |
Volume Conversions: |
Details: This calcaultor converts between commonly used volume measurements. |
Mass Conversions: |
Details: This calcaultor converts between commonly used mass measurements. |
Area Conversions: |
Details: This calcaultor converts between the commonly used measurements of vineyard area. 1 hectare (or square hectometre) = 10,000 square metres (a square 100m by 100m) |
Alcohol by Ebulliometry: |
Details: This calculation corrects the ebulliometer reading based on the calibration reading, and then calculates the alcohol content. |
Alcohol Prediction (pre-ferment): |
DSOS = Dissolved Solids Other than Sugar Details: This calculation is based on the method proposed by Duncan and Acton (Progressive Winemaking). The calculation is based on the initial and final gravity. The correction for DSOS is the the assumed gravity contribution from Dissolved Solids Other than Sugar. The correction for DSOS is hard to judge, but a suggestion is to use pre-ferment figures from wines for which you know the final alcohol, and tweak the DSOS until the calculation gives the correct value, then use the calculator for making predictions for similar musts (variety, region, condition etc). |
Details: This
calculator will calculate alcohol by volume from the spirit indication
procedure. This procedure involves taking a sample of known volume and
making a hydrometer reading. The sample is then boiled until it
is reduced to about half its initial volume, topped up to the initial
volume again with distilled water (or any water giving a hydrometer
reading of 0.000), and a final reading is taken.
This calculator includes hydrometer temperature correction so it is not essential to ensure the initial and final readings are made at the same temperature, however the temperatures, and calibration temperature of the hydrometer must be known. Note: This procedure, if performed carefully, will provide accurate results in wines regardless of residual sugar. |
Details: This
calculator uses a refractometer and hydrometer reading to ascertain the
alcohol content of the sample. The gravity measurement must be
from a hydrometer, and the °Brix measurement must be from a
refractometer, these values must not have been calculated from one
source. Alcohol (ethanol) has a higher refractive index than water, so a dry wine will usually give a refractometer reading in the range 5 to 15°Brix. |
Details: Monitor
the progress of a ferment without having to take large samples and use
a hydrometer, simply take a small refractometer sample. Entering the
initial °Brix reading (pre-ferment) and the current reading will give
is all that is required. Important: There are a lot of approximations involved in this calculator. While this method is extremely useful for monitoring ferments, and on the whole quite accurate, it is not perfect - for example, do not expect it to show a true °Brix of exactly zero when the fermentation has finished. |
Details: A sample
of high sugar juice can be diluted in order that it can be read on equipment with
a limited scale. However because the °Brix scale is calibrated as %_{w/w}, but
the dilution is carried out by measuring volume, the reading cannot simply be multiplied by
the dilution to obtain the °Brix of the juice. This calculator corrects for this, allowing
such dilutions to be used. Note on SG: If measuring a juice using SG (specific gravity), simple multiplication is possible. For example, a sample diluted to 50% with distilled water, which reads 1.090, has a gravity of 1.180. |
Details: The
density of water changes predictably with temperature and so it is
possible (and important) to correct readings taken at temperatures the
hydrometer is not calibrated for. Most hydrometers are calibrated
to 20°C, but some are calibrated to 15°C - any good hydrometer will
have the calibration temperature marked. This calculator, when working with a hydrometer calibrated to 20°C, is accurate over the approximate range 0-60°C, and when calibrated to 15°C, approximately 0-55°C. |
SO_{2} Aspiration/Oxidation Calculation: |
Details: This is a simple calculation of SO_{2} for the aspiration/oxidation method. Whether free, bound or total SO_{2} is calculated depends on the method you used. Red Wines: Much of the 'free' SO_{2} in red wines is actually pigment (anthocyanin) bound - actual free SO_{2} levels will be very significantly lower. |
Calculate Molecular SO_{2}: |
Details: This calculator will calculate the level of molecular SO_{2} in a wine based on its pH and measured free SO_{2} (the proportion of the measured free SO_{2} which is in the molecular form is dependant on pH). The required level of molecular SO_{2}
for antimicrobial protection is often given as 0.8mg/L, although
sometimes up to 1.5mg/L (Wine Science - Ronald S. Jackson - 2008). Red Wines: In red wines, most of the 'free' SO_{2} is actually pigment (anthocyanin) bound, and is released by acidification of the sample prior to measurement. Due to this, it is not currently possible to ascertain the level of molecular SO_{2} in red wines. Red wines are however, generally far more microbially stable than whites, and thus are typically maintained at lower levels of 'free' SO_{2}. In summary, maintaining high molecular SO_{2} in red wines is difficult and ill advised - do not use this calculator as a guide for red wines. |
Titratable Acidity: |
Details: This is a simple calculation of TA from a titration with NaOH. |
Dissolved Solids: |
Details: This
calculation is based on the alcohol calculation from refractometer and
hydrometer readings. The alcohol is calculated and then used
together with the specific gravity to calculate the dissolved solids.
The gravity measurement must be from a hydrometer, and the °Brix
measurement must be from a refractometer, these values must not have
been calculated from one source. Alcohol has a higher density than water, so a dry wine will give a refractometer reading in the range 5 to 10°Brix. |
Simple Deacidification: |
Details: This calculation is for simple deacidification using different agents: Calcium carbonate - CaCO_{3} Potassium carbonate - K_{2}CO_{3} Potassium bicarbonate - KHCO_{3} Tip: If you are treating a small volume, enter 1000 times the volume you have and the output will be in grams. For example, to deacidify 15 litres, type 15000 and the mass output will be in grams. |
Double Salt Deacidification: |
Details: This calculator calculates the volume of wine to treat, and the mass of calcium carbonate (CaCO_{3}) required to treat it for double salt deacidification. * The minimum volume to treat is the technically smallest volume of wine which needs to be completely deacidified. Allowing slightly more wine than this is the normal practice, as it ensures that the required deacidification is completed. The recommended volume to treat is simply 5% greater than the minimum, and is roughly in accordance with the volumes provided by the makers of Acidex®. ** Calcium carbonate (CaCO_{3}) is the deacidification agent. Brand name agents such as Acidex® consist almost entirely of calcium carbonate, but are seeded with crystals of the double salt, calcium malate-tartrate, designed to encourage precipitation of this salt. The mass calculated here can be used in either case. Tip: If you are treating a small volume, enter 1000 times the volume you have and the output will be in grams. For example, to deacidify 15 litres, type 15000 and the mass output will be in grams. |
DSOS: = Dissolved
Solids Other than Sugar - note that if your density reading is from a
hydrometer, using a value for DSOS is more important, if the reading is
from a refractometer, you can probably assume no DSOS. Details: This calculator works out how much sugar to add to a given volume of wine to raise it to a desired density (which we use as a measure of sugar content). For convenience it also calculates the estimated potential alcohol of the current must, and after the calculated chaptalisation. The estimated finishing gravity and correction for DSOS can be ignored if alcohol prediction is not required. |
Details: This calculator works in the same way as a traditional Pearson's square. It is used to give the volume of spirit (of known alcohol content) to add to a volume of wine wine (of known alcohol content), to bring it to a desired alcohol content. |
Details: This
calculator makes fining trial and subsequent fining addition
calculations quick and simple. After performing fining trials and
deciding on an addition level, fill in all details and the volume of
fining agent required will be calculated. Be sure to check all units, the ones used here have been chosen for convenience in the majority of situations. |
Details: A very simple calculator to calculate the mass of a solid additive required to reach a specific concentration given a volume of juice/wine. |
DAP = about 21% YAN (Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen) PMS = 57% SO_{2} by mass Details: This calculator is for use with solids of which only a certain percentage is active. From the percentage, the desired addition level, and the volume of the juice/wine, the calculator will provide the mass of solid to add. |
Details: This calculator will calculate exactly how much of a solution of a given concentration to add to a given volume of juice/wine, to reach a desired concentration of the solute. For example, a solution of concentration 500mg/L is to be added to 100L of wine to give the wine a concentration of 10mg/L. |
VinoCalc can not only be used on the internet, it can also be saved
for use without an internet connection. To save VinoCalc to your
computer, read the following instructions: 1 - Right click (for Mac users, hold control and click) on the 'Save VinoCalc' link below. 2 - In the menu that opens, select "Save As", "Save Link As", "Save Target As", "Download Linked File" or whatever command most approximates these. 3 - Choose somewhere to save the file 'vinocalc.html' 4 - You can now copy this file anywhere you want, to a USB stick, CD, other computers. When you want to use it, simply double click the file and it will open in your web browser, regardless of whether or not you have an internet connection. Save VinoCalc Note: If you use VinoCalc offline, remember to check for updated versions from time to time. Do this by opening VinoCalc, and clicking the link near the top of the page which reads "The latest version will always be available from www.slymail.org/vinocalc.html". This link will take you to the online version of VinoCalc, the version number is in the top right of the page, if it is higher than the version you have, you can follow the above instructions to download the new version. |